Phosphoric Acid H3p04

FIG. 181. PHOSPHORIC ACID H»PO„

PHOSPHORIC ACID H,PO,

The Phosphate Group POt and Phosphite PO,

The Phosphate group consists of a Phosphorus atom with four Oxygen atoms. Although Phosphorus is a cube it is suggested that the method used in the SO, group, see H,SO,, is used. Reference to Fig. 174 will show that the four Oxygen atoms are directed towards the faces of a tetrahedron and the four funnels of Sulphur come at the ends of the Oxygen atoms, with the components of Hydrogen floating over the funnels.

In the case of the Phosphate PO« group we have again four Oxygen atoms and these enter the molecule and arrange themselves so that they point to the four directions of a tetrahedron, as before. The Oxygen atoms are revolving much more rapidly than the funnels. The Phosphorus is however, a cube. This cube isi placed round the Oxygen atom and the six funnels point to the six faces of the cube.

Phosphoric Acid H,PO.

In this we have the Phosphate group. The phosphate group does not stand alone. If three Hydrogens are added they break up into their two halves and float over funnels as they do in H,SO«. Fig 181.

There are various kinds of Phosphorus acids.

H,PO, seems to be like H,P04 except that as there are only three Oxygen atoms they are in a three dimensional triangle inside the cube instead of towards the faces of a tetrahedron.

It was also observed that there is a second form of Phosphoric acid in which the funnels actually break up. Each funnel of Phosphorus contains two constituent bodies, making twelve in all. These arrange themselves in groups of three and float over the four Oxygen atoms. The Hydrogen atoms divide as before more like the H,SO, diagram.

Another Phosphoric acid was observed which has only two Hydrogen atoms. In this case the Hydrogen atoms are broken up on to a higher sub-plane. i.e. the two Hydrogen atoms give 6 groups of 2 balls, over the six funnels

AMMONIA NH, Type A

AMMONIA NH, TYPE A

The complete Nitrogen atom remains unbroken in the centre of the molecule, while the components of the three Hydrogen atoms circle round like planets round the sun. The Hydrogen atoms break up into the six triangles and these arrange themselves into three groups of two. Instead of the two half-Hydrogens of the atom remaining together as one would expect, however, there is a re-arrangement. The three groups circle on three planes ; the first and topmost plane has two negative half-Hydrogens ; the middle layer has one positive and one negative; and the bottom layer two positive half-Hydrogens.

AMMONIA NH3 Type B

AMMONIA NH, Type B

This molecule also has the whole of the Nitrogen atom in the centre but round it revolve, on two planes, the six half-Hydrogens. Three negative half-Hydrogen atoms whirl round the upper part of the Nitrogen and three positive half-Hydrogen atoms round the lower half.

AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE NH4OH

FIG. 184. AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE NH.OH

AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE NH.OH

The arrangement of the NH« part of the moleculc follows the design of Ammonia Type A. In NH4, however, we have four planes, on cach of which circle two half-Hydrogen atoms. The topmost plane has two negative half-Hydrogens, the second, one negative and one positive, the third, two positive and the lowest, one positive and one negative.

The OH group remains together and is placed near the NH,. Fig. 184.

Here again the Nitrogen and Hydrogen atoms remain together, following the general pattern of NH, Type A, except that here we have only two planes. Two of these NH, groups whirl round one CO group, which is arranged as already met with in other compounds. The Oxygen atom is in the centre forming a column. Round this column circle the four Anu from the Carbon centre and the eight funnels of the Carbon arrange themselves at the top and bottom of the Oxygen column.

(N20

N20)

\

-o s

-o

\

o \

u

p

+o

o-

(N9)

[N9I

NZ4)

nitric acid hno,

FIG. 18&. NITRIC ACID HNO,

NITRIC ACED HNO,

In these nitrate compounds it is the Nitrogen which seems to suffer and not the Oxygen. The three Oxygens stand round the remains of the Nitrogen which is broken up considerably.

The centre piece of Nitric acid, HNO„ is formed by N110. The ovoid at the centre of the N110 is upright and the six globes N14 arrange themselves at the points of a hexagon. Round this centre piece we find the six groups from the Hydrogen atom, also arranged in hexagonal form. They are marked—and+. Round these again come the seven N9 globes which form the N63 group of Nitrogen. These seven N9 globes are at the points of a heptagon. The other four groups from Nitrogen, two N20 and two N24. stand round at the corners like sentinels.

The three Oxygen atoms are at the points of a triangle, probably in the third dimension at right angles to the paper.

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