fig. 203. the benzene ring
Of the four valencies, three are satisfied, what becomes of the fourth valence ?
In Benzene one pair of funnels from each of the six Carbons passes into the ring. These twelve funnels then form a dodecahedron at the centre of the ring. It should be noted that this ring is not a flat hexagon but that the six Carbons are placed at the six corners of an octahedron. The remaining six funnels in each Carbon form themselves into a fan-shape, with the six triplets from each Hydrogen floating over the mouths of the funnels.
The appearance of the Benzene molecule is shown in Fig. 204, which is a photograph from a model. We must remember that no model can ever adequately represent the reality, since first the distances between Anu and between groups of them, and their relative sizzs, cannot bi correctly represented in any model, and secondly each funnel which looks solid is not solid at all but is only a whirlpool of force created by the Anu as they revolve.
naphthalene c,oht benzene c,h,
fig. 204. benzene. naphthalene and anthracene showing the formation of single. double and triple ring compounds.
This compound is a simple derivative of Benzene. Fig. 205. The diagram of Benzene should be studied first in perspective, showing the central dodecahedron and the rest of the Carbon atoms distributed at the comers of an octahedron. Fig. 205 shows the six Carbon atoms in Phenol as at the corners of a flat hexagon. This is merely for convenience in the diagrams. The true form is as in Benzene. Phenol is Benzene with the Hydroxyl (OH) group at one corner, and not at the top, as might have been expected. The molecule is not straight but asymmetric The difference in these things is not in the atoms but in the way in which they lie in reference to the currents. The Phenol is distorted and wobbly. When the Oxygen is lost the Phenol becomes straight again and there is a sense of relief—here there is a distinct rudiment of sensation.
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