C

fig 213. indigo

Indigo is a complex molecule. Fig. 213. It consists of four rings but they are not true Benzene rings. The molecule is double or symmetrical, and each side has a Benzene ring and a second ring attached where Nitrogen, or the NH group, and the CO groups form the connecting links. The two halves of the molecule are connected through a double bond Carbon. Only one half of the molecule is given in Fig. 213.

A particularly interesting point about this diagram is that it illustrates how the valencies of Nitrogen act. The N110 is distorted, having projections at the top and bottom. The two N20 groups circle round the top projection and the two N24 groups circle round the bottom projection, which is pulled down by the N63. The two side projections are directed towards the valency forces from the Carbon atoms. The Hydrogen atom floats above the Nitrogen.

The CO group is arranged as in Carbon Monoxide. The Oxygen is in the centre, as a pillar, and the Carbon funnels flat at the top and the four Carbon Anu circle round it. The Carbon funnels provide the valency forces as usual, but the Carbon in the ring to which the CO is attached has its funnels bunched together like petals closing. The central valence is as in Maleic acid.

CHAPTER XTV

CATALYSIS, CRYSTALLIZATION

JUST a glimpse was gained into the mysterious process of Catalysis. Two examples were observed.

A. THE CATALYTIC ACTION OF MANGANESE DIOXIDE

This was the first observation on catalysis, and Mr. Leadbeater notes the appearance of a totally new force, hitherto not noticed in any previous observation.

The easily performed experiment in catalysis of heating a mixture of Potassium Chlorate and Manganese Dioxide was made. The catalytic changes observed were as follows (representing by O and O the Oxygen atoms belonging respectively to Potassium Chlorate and Manganese Dioxide):

The Oxygen O, is liberated, while the catalyst remains unchanged. The action proceeds through the formation of intermediate compounds and is violent

B. THE COMBINATION OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN TO FORM WATER. IN THE PRESENCE OF PLATINUM

In this case there is little chemical evidence of the formation of intermediate compounds. The action is represented 2Ha+Ot =»2 H,0.

The Platinum seems to act as an agent to produce the right conditions rather than to take much part in the action itself.

This is borne out in the occult investigation, where the change of the energy conditions is described by Mr. Leadbeater as a compression. The substances taking part in the reaction become denser or are compressed together, and in this condition the union of the two gases. Hydrogen and Oxygen, takes place.

It will be seen that in the notes the ' compression' is mentioned, but it is further stated that " The platinum does not do more than draw the Hydrogen atoms round it" To the chemist this suggests the surface film produced on the surface of metals.

CATALYSIS, CRYSTALLIZATION

The following notes were taken by Mr. JinarSjadSsa during the course of the above observations. They illustrate the method of recording.

C. J. Do the bars of the Platinum revolve more rapidly round each axis ?

C. W. L. You make a difference in the density of each atom. You can shrink it or loosen it out.

C. J. When they have been squeezed together do they return to the full size ?

C. W. L. It is a question of looseness, time after time they return when not under stronger compression. The presence of the Platinum causes a great rise in temperature.

Because of its condition it is capable of action on the surrounding air.

C. J. Is the Platinum saturated ? Is the Hydrogen sucked up ? Is there a compound of Platinum and Hydrogen ?

C. W. L. You may get a state in which the loosened structure of the Platinum draws a kind of court of Hydrogen round it, each bar with £ H at one end and } H at the other end. The atoms are lying separate, no longer interlaced but just like powder.

C. J. Is the individual Platinum atom larger in that case ?

C. W. L. In crystals all atoms interact on one another and produce great compression.

There is none of that here. Each atom is quite free and not under compression. The bars are looser, the atom has expanded. When the Hydrogen is turned on, gas passed over the Platinum, you get still further expansion. The Platinum does not do anything so long as it is under compression.

C. J. Then you are using something up ?

C. W. L. When you apply heat. When the thing is glowing the Platinum is sending out more energy.

C. J. Is it itself moving faster ?

C. W. L. Not only do the bars revolve but the atoms inside are also dancing round on solar system scheme.

C. J. Which becomes faster when we heat, or both of them ?

C. W. L. Difficult to follow—wont stay still. There appears to be an indefinite amount of latent energy in the thing.

C. J. Has it lost something in the process ?

C. W. L. As far as I can see this loosened Platinum is losing its power to respond.

Everything is being disturbed. Hydrogen is free again. In the action the Platinum remains more compact than it was it becomes denser and smaller and in the process heat is released.

FIG. 214. A SILVER NITRATE CRYSTAL

SILVER NITRATE

FIG. 214. A SILVER NITRATE CRYSTAL

SILVER NITRATE CRYSTAL NATURAL CONDITION

SILVER NITRATE CRYSTAL EFFECT OF LIGHT

FIG. 215. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON SILVER NITRATE

CATALYSIS, CRYSTALLIZATION

SILVER NITRATE AgNO,

Observation showed that the Silver Nitrate compound existed first in groups of 1,296 molecules, which then broke up into groups of 432 when subject to light

Fig. 214 shows the crystal of Silver Nitrate, its shape being that of a double cube tapering at both ends. When light impinges on it, it is broken up into three blocks, each of 432 molecules. In these smaller blocks, also the ends are pushed out so that the blocks taper at each end.

Fig. 215 illustrates the effect produced by light on the arrangement of the molecules. In the normal crystal the molecules are in rows. Light alters their position so that they are as in the diagram. The alternate molecules step back. Evidently the light is absorbed and not reflected.

CALCITE AND ARAGONITE

The constitution of these two forms of CaCO, appears identical, but in one the three Oxygen atoms stand upright at right angles to the paper, and in the other they radiate horizontally as drawn in Figure 172, page 276.

THE DIAMOND

When examined clairvoyantly it was seen that the structure of the Diamond was somewhat difficult to grasp. There was clearly a unit of Diamond, and its shape was a triakis octahedron. Fig. 216. But how was the large mass of Carbon atoms built up to make the Diamond ? Each Carbon atom is an octahedron in outline; each is composed of eight funnels, four positive and four negative. Obviously in any form of packing, funnels of like electrical quality must not come mouth to, mouth, as they will then repel each other.

One especial difficulty in mapping out the structure of the Diamond was due to the fact that in reality there is no rigid octahedral shape visible in the outline of a Carbon atom. Certainly its eight funnels radiate to the eight surfaces of an octahedron; but the octahedral shape is more an appearance than a reality. Fig. 217 shows four of these funnels. The funnel is a temporary effect, being in fact the rotational field made as groups of Anu revolve. In their revolutions, they push back the circumambient matter of the plane next above, making thus a temporary shell or field of activity.

In the packing of Carbon to make the Diamond, any two funnels of opposite electrical quality, from two adjacent Carbon atoms, interlock. The two rotational fields overlap, and the cigar-shaped bodies of one funnel enter among the interstices of the similar bodies in the funnel opposite to it. Fig. 218 is an attempt to show this interlocking. This unusual interlocking may perhaps be the reason why the Diamond crystal is so very hard.

The simplest way to describe the Diamond, whose general appearance is shown by Fig. 219, is to narrate how the octahedrons are assembled, in the making of the model. First, five Carbon atoms are grouped, as in Fig. 220. Funnels of opposite electrical quality hold each other rigidly. These five Carbon atoms, in this formation, form the Carbon molecular unit for the building of the Diamond. Fig. 221 shows the same unit, with its Maltese cross, as seen from the back.

Taking now 25 of these units, we place them in rows of five, making thus a square. Similarly we assemble 16 units to make a smaller square, 9 more to make a square smaller still, and finally 4 to make the smallest square. We now make a pyramid of four sides; its base will be of 25 units, then next above 16, 9 and 4. The top of the pyramid is one unit of five Carbon atoms.

Here we quote the words of the investigator as he describes what he sees.

" Now build in imagination another pyramid exactly like the first, and one would expect, by putting them together base to base, to have the complete molecule. But it is not so simple as that. They are applied base to base, but they are, as it were, bolted together by the insertion of additional Carbon atoms. Turn the pyramid upside down, and you will see quite a pretty pattern of 25 Maltese crosses. Fig. 222. Take any four of these crosses, and you will see in the middle of the group of four a depression, a square hole. In the reversed base of 25 units there are 16 of these holes, and before we set the bases together we must put a single carbon atom in each of the 16 holes of one of the bases. The 16 atoms will project like spikes, but when we apply the two bases, we shall find that these projections will exactly fit into the depressions which come opposite to them, and will lock the two pyramids together most efficiently. Is this also part of the explanation of the extreme hardness of the diamond ?

" There is yet another peculiarity. The 16 blue and black holes (in the diagram) are arranged in four lines of four. Produce those lines in each case to the edge of the base of the reversed pyramid, and we find another additional Carbon atom fixed there as a bolt; also, one extra at each corner of the base. We will mark the holes for these (they are really only half-holes) green in our diagram, and there will be twenty of them altogether. The Carbon atoms which fill these green exterior holes project at the sides of

FIG. 216. A UNIT OF DIAMOND FIG. 217. FOUR CARBON FUNNELS

FIG. 216. A UNIT OF DIAMOND FIG. 217. FOUR CARBON FUNNELS

FIG 218. CARBON INTERLOCKING FIG. 21<?. A CRYSTAL OF DIAMOND
FIG. 220. FIVE CARBON ATOMS

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