Chapter Three

Reformed Druidism from 1964-1973

Missionary Expansion Beyond Carleton College.

In the spring of 1964, Druidism really looked as if it would die with Cherniack retired, Nelson about to graduate, Fisher slowly distancing himself from Druidism in preparation for Episcopal Semi-nary,107 and the Chapel requirement about to be rescinded. Frangquist & Nelson, however, came up and asked to enter Fisher's mysterious Third Order with the realization that they had a good thing going with the RDNA. Frangquist & Nelson had decided that they wanted to share Druidism with others after leaving Carleton, or as Zempel later put it:

"Due to the temporary nature of membership in the Carleton Grove, nearly every priest ordained can be expected to eventually serve a missionary function, making Druidism available other than its birth place."108

Frangquist was not an originalTriumvirate Founder (but close enough to be an honorary fourth Founder), but he had soon become a very active Druid in the grove.109 He did not make this commitment lightly and showed quite a bit of preparation:

"David [Frangquist], unlike myself [Fisher] & co-founders, took his Druidism very seriously, and meditated long & hard before asking for ordination as a 3rd order priest."110

Together, Frangquist and Nelson had decided to use and maintain the Third Order priesthood as a sort of check upon future groves from becoming too serious or becoming too dangerously wild. But they wanted to ensure that the Third Order would not become too domineering, or take itself too seriously. Most of all, the Third Order should not become a goal for title-hungry people on ego-trips.

A word here about the Third Order is in order (pun intended). There is not much known about the archetype/god of the Third Order, Dalon ap Landu. He does not exist in any archaeological or literary sources. There is some rumor that "Dalon ap Landu" is a variant of "Dylan eil Ton" which would explain the Welsh name "Dalon son of the Sea," but I suspect that there is little connection between the two. Dylan in the Mabinogi was a young boy thrown into the sea and drowned. In outrage, the sea has ever since been throwing itself in anger against the shore-rocks in an attempt to reach the malefactors. Perhaps there is a symbolic representation of the Druids continually throwing themselves against the breakers of Dogma? The only revealing verse in the Druid Chronicles, doesn't mesh with this hypothesis because it refers to Dalon as a tree:

"We have seen him on the bosom of the Earth-Mother: huge woody arms raised to the sky in adoration, strong and alive; and we have called His name Dalon Ap Landu.111"

If Dalon is a tree-god, that would explain why he's in charge of "groves," and their keepers, the Third Order. Isaac claims that at least one Masonic Druid organization, whose name he can't remember, also has a Dalon Ap Landu. It is perhaps revealing of the mentality of Reformed Druids, that they would chose such an intentionally obscure Welsh name for the most important office of Druidism, a Patron that was for all intents and purposes laden with no preconceptions or descriptions.112

This type of attitude of letting others disprove their own misconceptions is similar to the essence of mysticism in fraternal organizations, when done correctly.113 The unfounded hopes, fears and ex pectations can build to a frenzy as the initiation approaches the climax. Then, all the danger is revealed to be a holy "joke" and one sees that all the disappointments were brought on by one's own frenzied fears and hopes. The result is that the initiate begins to realize that appearances can be deluding with regard to ritual and religion, necessitating a deeper observation. Unlike most of the fraternal organizations, Reformed Druidism's services are not secret, and the private nature of the Third Order ordination is merely done to form a closer bond, to leave a little bit of surprise for future initiates and possibly to reduce embarrassment in the unlikely case that the candidate is rejected.114 Several times, other non-Thirds would be around to observe it, but realistically, how many people would really want to tromp into the Arb at 6:00 am just to watch someone else's ordination?

In the spring of 1964 Fisher was reluctant to continue his Arch-Druidship into his senior year, primarily because he thought the group was getting too close to a religion; however Fisher was hesitant to relinquish control. Nelson, wishing to be ArchDruid from a love of titles, began this new stage of post-Fisher Druidism. Under Nelson's brief summer ArchDruidcy in May 1964 to Sept. 1964, the Order of Worship was fixed as the basic liturgy and the Higher Orders (i.e. 4th to 10th) were established to "stimulate priests of the 3rd Order to continued spiritual inquiry," much like honorary academic de-grees.115 The Higher Orders were also considered very extraneous compared to the First, Second and Third Orders. After a few years the Higher Orders vanished from memory, until the 1970s when the NRDNA wished to revive them as magical badges of office. After the Higher Orders were established, Nelson graduated and left Carleton to start the first of the missionary groves at Vermilion, S.D.116 during the summer of 1964, essentially acting as the ArchDruid of both Groves. Meanwhile over the summer, Frangquist founded the shortlived Ma-Ja-Ka-Wan Grove in a Wisconsin summer camp.

David Frangquist's subsequent two year reign as ArchDruid at Carleton from Fall 1964 to Spring 1966 completed the basic formulation of the hierarchy and philosophical foundations of the RDNA, except for the final clarification in 1971 to correct a few elements of sexism that were disturbing to many in the Reform.117 Because there were only a handful of initial priests on the membership rolls of the Council of Dalon Ap Landu during the early 60s, it was easy for a lot of rules to be hammered out in a consensus very quickly. The consensus tradition is very important to remember because, in later years, it became increasingly difficult to get the increasingly large rolls of priests to either abstain or vote positively on Councilor issues.

Complete authority over the Reform (if such a thing ever existed) was invested in the Council of Dalon ap Landu under the perpetual Chairmanship of the currently presiding ArchDruid of Carleton.118 This in effect turned Carleton into the central administration of the Reformed Druid movement in a vaguely similar way to how Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Judaism all have a "main Headquarters." Voting membership on this Council was limited to those of the Third Order, each of whom must have been initiated by an Arch-Druid (who is, of course, of the Third Order).119 New dogma would require a consensus from the replies of known, not active, members of the Council who had been contacted.120 If an Arch-Druid found a prospective initiate too fanatical, or likely to turn Druidism into a personal cult-following, they could do little to avoid ordaining her/him into the Third Order, within reason..121 The flaw was that once a "rogue" slipped into the Third Order, there was nothing you could do to defrock them or stop their propagation. To defrock them would be an un-Druidic thing to do, because you would be claiming to understand their soul better than they could themselves. It was figured that Grove members would eventually spot the rogues and leave them.

Missionary Dilemma

3343 Once they had been initiated into the Third Order, Nelson and

Frangquist pondered how to form missionary groves away from Carleton. The problem, known as "the Missionary Dilemma," which hinged on the proper consecration of the Waters-of-Life, as performed in the Order of Worship.122 In order to properly consecrate 1st, 2nd and 3rd Order Druids, you need to have consecrated Waters-of-Life. The only way to consecrate the Waters-of-Life was to have a Preceptor (of the Second Order) and a Server (of the First Order) already present in the Grove before the consecration began. In a technical way, a traveling Third Order couldn't perform the ceremony or consecrate the waters without also having two traveling companions, one of at least the Second Order and another of at least the First Order. Since it was very unlikely that three such graduating Druids from Carleton would go on to the same graduate school, it appeared that Druidism couldn't technically ever leave Carleton.

For some reason, the possibility of carrying pre-consecrated Waters was never discussed. Instead, the informal decision was made that a missionary Third Order Druid has the right to perform the ceremony in absence of an already consecrated Preceptor and Server. This decision had a precedent (not that precedents are needed or respected in the RDNA) in the way that Fisher (originally the only "consecrated" member of the Carleton Grove) ordained the first 2nd and 1st Order Druids into existence. This was vaguely referred to in the Council decision on 27 January, 1965 which stated:

"That any priest has the right to conduct worship and receive members into the First and Second orders."

With this obstacle to growth now removed and already tested at the Vermilion Grove of S.D. by Nelson and Frangquist in Wisconsin in the Summer of 1964, the missionary expansion of Reformed Druid-ism can be said to have begun.123

Great Amounts of Freedom Established For Groves.

Each resolution further limited the numbers of distracting cosmetic touches to ritual or organization that could be lobbied for "official" approval. That type of bowing and begging to central authority would distract the attention of the Druids from the virtues of careful introspection and self-reliance. An example of this is that the contents of the Order of Worship were never described as firmly fixed in the Council's records.124 There is no phraseology there that limits anyone from building upon or subtracting from the liturgy. One essentially had absolute freedom to fool around with it, although few went too far away from the basics.125 The only absolutely fixed ritual of the RDNA was for the Third Order. In fact, it was the Third Order which is restricted by such laws rather than the lower orders.

Because of early missionary activity by the Founders (Fisher, Nelson & Frangquist all started groves) and the inconvenience of regular correspondence, the difficulty of controlling and directing distant groves was quickly realized. It is also possible that they realized that a fully-enrolled Carleton student (which is traditionally the requirement for being the Archdruid of the Carleton Grove) just doesn't have the time to be bothered with supervising and/or controlling faraway distant groves. These elements when combined, led to a great amount of freedom being granted to possible future groves beyond Carleton.

By the Spring of 1966, all it took to found a grove was a Third Order Druid (who could ordain anyone to 1st or 2nd Order) and two other elected people to fill the appropriate liturgical roles during the initial service. The Grove's officers of Arch-Druid, Preceptor and Server were then elected by a majority and a new constitution was voted on by unanimity126 and that was mailed to Carleton.127 Amendments to a grove's constitution were generally by majority vote of a quorum of the grove's known members (1/8 of those of 1st order on up) at two consecutive meetings. Members missing the first meeting must be notified of the second meeting.128 No specific contents were ever required for the later grove constitutions by the Council to be submitted to Carleton by the new grove, not even clauses of subservience to the Council! Freedom. Hoping to further limit extension of power by future Councils upon future groves, the Council declared:

"That the local Groves retain the right to organize themselves in any way which will best serve their own needs."129

These rules taken together, allowed each individual grove the freedom to make any liturgical, hierarchical or theological rules that they wanted. In many ways it was like the separation of Federal and State government in the USA; with the Council being the Federal government and the local groves (including Carleton) being the States. The only thing the groves couldn't do was to claim that all the rest of Reformed Druidism also had to follow their own modifications. Any dissenters in the grove could leave or even step forward to be ordained into the Third Order, choose to schis from the group, and then form their own equally independent grove. Thus if Berkeley wanted all of its grove members to declare themselves as Neo-Pagan to serve their own needs, there was nothing the Council could do about it, except to grumble about their exclusionary actions. What the Council could do was hope that the Berkeleyites would show enough independent will of their own, which they did. But if Berkeley wanted all of Reformed Druidism to declare itself Neo-Pagan, then the Council would have to discuss and then vote on it.

It should be noted that the individuals of the Third Order, while given the privileges of holding services and ordinations, are nowhere granted control of the grove in matters of theology. Nowhere in the laws or traditions does a Third Order Druid have the right to tell someone that they are a "heretic" to Reformed Druidism. While a Third Order could theoretically opt to withhold services and ordinations until their parishioners agreed with her or him, such actions would be generally considered "un-Druidic" or at least a poor way to resolve internal disputes. I believe that the Records of the Council of Dalon Ap Landu, are firmly silent on the powers of individual Thirds to prevent any legal precedent for enforceable personality cults centered around one individual's personal beliefs. You can have a charismatic Arch-Druid, but they should have a following based on love and understanding, not on fear of organizational rules/dogma. Entrusting theological issues to the total Council, would by default, keep the groves of the Reform open and free of local dictators. If this wasn't the original intention, it certainly was the eventual effect.

The Druid Chronicles and Green Book of Meditations

Perhaps the greatest legacy to the RDNA that Frangquist left to Carleton wasn't the Third Order and the Council, but rather The Druid Chronicles (Reformed) and the Green Book of Meditation (Vol.1). These two books were considered, by many members, to have been the heart and soul of Reformed Druidism.

The Druid Chronicles (Reformed) were completed before the Summer of 1964 by David Frangquist. They contain light-hearted accounts of the major events of the turbulent first year of Reformed Druidism from May 1963 to May 1964 under David Fisher. The humor and cheeky presentation of the Foundation was a reminder to Druids not to get misty-eyed or seriously concerned about preserving the "sanctity" of the many organizational aspects. DC(R) also lists some of the early customs, lists the two Basic Tenets as the sole theology of the group, and provides a number of inspiring meditations to encourage individualistic exploration for personal truth. The book, itself, does not claim to be divinely inspired and there was no decision by the Council to make DC(R)'s statements or customs into official law. DC(R) was left behind as a helpful collection of suggestions, put into writing, on how Druidism was originally run (perhaps in case you'd like to duplicate it). Despite a lack of official en-344 dorsement for DC(R), all the different branches of Druidism have claimed that DC(R) is a good thing to keep around for a healthy grove. As we'll discuss later, the only problem with the DC(R) was that it had four verses in Customs that were sexist and would continue to frustrate attempts to legislate gender equality. So while I say it was never official dogma, it had some weight of implied tradition behind it.

The Green Book of Meditations, (The Green Book), was primarily compiled by David Frangquist from 1964-1966. Unlike the universal popularity of DC(R), the Green Book is practically unknown outside of the alumni from the Carleton Grove. Ostensibly, the Green Book was a collection of handy meditations for potential use at Druid Services by Arch-Druids who were too lazy or busy to research their own readings. As such, it is hard to understand its popularity at Carleton, who are usually pretty industrious in pursuing their interests. But on successive readings, one quickly realizes that the Green Book is not just a random selection, but contains an underlying integrity. I feel, and many agree, that it generally sets forth to provoke thinking about such Druidical topics as "certainty," "leadership," "reality," "nature," and "individuality." In essence it contains the kernels of Reformed Druidism as understood by David Frangquist. Because it included illuminating examples from many of the world's existing faiths (including monotheistic ones), it gave positive reinforcement to the Carleton tradition of openness to possibility of valid truths to be found in the teachings all faiths. It is amazing that Berkeley stayed so close to the Carleton ideals of openness as it did, without the Green Book. Perhaps this can be traced to the presence of the DC(R) and Larson, or maybe Druidism can sustain itself by common sense without reference to books?

Crowning Touches

The last hierarchical touch was the creation of a central record-keeping office for the RDNA. The April 26, 1966 decision required future ArchDruids of Carleton (each of whom will be a Chair of the Council) upon retiring to send a report of the state of Druidism to ALL members of the Council. This allowed the initial Third Order Druids to keep track of what was going on at Carleton and elsewhere, even if no voting took place, probably more out of curiosity than from a fear of "heresy." They certainly never expected the Council to get too large or to become embroiled in politics.

Not long after Frangquist stepped down in Spring 66, the Council had started to become a difficult (but not impossible) voting tool because, as membership rolls quickly swelled in the late 60s, it became very difficult to come to a unanimous consensus on basic issues or even just to keep track of the Council's addresses (especially updating the addresses of Third Orders consecrated outside of Carleton). The Council had done its main purpose by 1966 of setting up a basic system. The major flaw to be seriously debated until 1974 was how to remove any remaining doubts concerning sexual equality within the Third Order (considered to have been fixed in 1971). Basically, any further claims of dogma were left to the whims of the individual groves' members.

"Druidism boasts no ethos. Since Druidism has never claimed to be a religion, dogmatism has always seemed incompatible with the [RDNA] organization."130

We'll pick up the voting problems again later with Isaac's proposals in Chapter Five, but now let's address the question of whether Dru-idism is a religion or a philosophy.

Did the Missionaries consider the RDNA to be a Religion or Philosophy?

I think most scholars of Reformed Druidism will be surprised to learn that this issue of whether Reformed Druidism was a religion was debated and quietly addressed in 1968-9 in what I happily call "The Smiley Affair"131 when the RDNA took on the Vietnam era's Draft Board. Even before Isaac began his revolutionary testing of the RDNA's organizational limits in the mid 1970s, that important question of Philosophy vs. Religion had already been firmly decided by a definite "Maybe! Why don't you ask each of us?."132

What is important to note is that although Reformed Druidism (as a whole) can not claim to be a religion in the eyes of all it's members, there is no denial that an individual could claim that Druidism had become their own personal religion. The Reformed Druid groves (except maybe the SDNA) never, ever, required a Druid member to give up their previous religious affiliation or adopt a new one. This principle often boiled down to an assumption that the group can not and should not validly declare anything itself, something that can only be done by the individuals. This is an important lesson of Druidism that I've often come across. This common assumption within Druidism was that one just had to have confidence in one's own beliefs because all theologies come down to an issue of faith, which is basically a personal choice of convictions. Besides, I've rarely found two people who can agree on the same air-tight definition of "philosophy" or "religion." The two definitions become especially difficult to separate if your group doesn't have any explicit gods or goddesses in them. Without definite deities, philosophies and religions both seem to be systems of moral and ethical guidelines. It should be remembered that even ethicists can disagree strongly with eachother on what is ethical. More often than not, people "give in" a little in certain private opinions in order to further the pursuit of a group accomplishment, which can be good or bad (usually bad).

It is interesting to note that Reformed Druidism lacks many of the elements considered important to the popular understanding of a religion. It lacks a world creation story (besides the story of the group's origins) and it simply refers to Nature as "one of the objects of Creation," which is rumored to be a "Fisherism" that somehow slipped into Reformed Druidism (although no one has really complained). We've already mentioned that Reformed Druidism has no explicit gods in it's belief structure. It also lacks an obvious eschatology, it has no judicial system of rigid ethics or morals, there are no injunctions about family/social arrangements, it has no real problems with people editing/criticizing its own scriptures, it has no legal punishments (e.g. chopping off people's hands), it has no Messianic prophecies or exclusionary methods of claiming its people to be "the only chosen ones." By Western standards, it's at best a "half-baked" religion. But I believe that Taoism and Zen also lack these elements and yet they are considered to be religions. Which answer is correct? I'll discuss this further with the discussion of the highly speculative possibility of influences from Freemasonry on the RDNA in Chapter Four.

In conclusion, the RDNA was amenable to its members believing (or not believing) in a god (or gods) on a personal level, but vagueness and indecision on this issue prevailed on a group level. I personally see it this way: the RDNA was originated as a philosophy on a group level and it had the possibility of becoming a religion on the individual level; as is evidenced in the following case.

"The Smiley Case" Elaborated

I mentioned earlier that there were two cases where a united "front" was put on by Reformed Druids to surmount an authoritative threat to its membership. The first was the Chapel Requirement of Carleton College and the second was the US Draft Board; which I refer to as "The Smiley Case" or "The Smiley Affair."

Richard Smiley, (CL65:Fisher)133 was a Third Order priest from the early days of Reformed Druidism who had founded the Purdue grove in 1966-7. Smiley was studying at Purdue and leading a grove there, but the Draft wanted him to kill people in Vietnam. Smiley 345 saw a chance to use Reformed Druidism to protest both the Draft and the special exemptions from military service that were being granted to the priests of mainstream religions (but not to equally "religious" laity who merely lacked the hierarchical titles). In this respect, Smiley was acting in the true spirit of the Reform because "[Smiley] enjoyed playing the Game as much as anyone, but still was getting something out of it."134

In the spirit of testing definitions, Smiley wrote to the Draft Board that he was a minister seeking a 4-D ministerial exemption.135 When the Draft board cautiously wrote back that they were unaware of his Seminary training, Smiley flatly responded:

"I am a minister of the Reformed Druids of North America. I received my training concurrently with my regular undergraduate education, at Carleton."136

Smiley, the Frangquists, Savitzky137 & Richard Shelton138 worked together to explore the loose governmental definitions of a minister, all of which hinged upon a person performing organizationalfunctions in a religious group rather than holding definable religious beliefs139 Also hidden in this protest was the indignation common to young adults; namely, that the "elders" felt that a "young'un" couldn't be as strong in their beliefs as someone over thirty. Whenever a letter was required by the Draft Board to prove Smiley was a priest in good standing, the

Arch-Druid of Carleton would send a very formal letter affirming

Smiley's actions as performing the required functions.140 The conclusion of the story was that the Council delayed the Draft board so long, that Smiley became too old to be drafted and Druidism remained happily undefined in its beliefs and never had to lie.

The RDNA came close to a brush with fame here because in the unlikely event that the board said "You are exempt because you are a Third Order Priest," then the RDNA might have made some media coverage and grown substantially. Smiley was all prepared to do the paperwork necessary for acquiring the legal & financial trappings of a religion. About this time, the Universal Life Church, who will ordain anyone, went to court in 1970 to successfully protect one of its ministers from the Draft. As a result, the ULC membership swelled by the thousands. In many ways, Druidism is similar to the Universal Life Church, of which many Reformed Druids are also members for the ministerial credentials.141 The ULC "rights" start:

"Every person has the right to determine his/her own faith and creed according to conscience.

Every person has the right to the privacy of his/her belief, to express his/her beliefs in worship, teaching, and practice, and to proclaim the implications of his beliefs for relationships in a social or political community."142

But regardless of the successful outcome, one sees a recurring example that if a Third Order (or any other Druid, of course) should claim that Reformed Druidism is their religion, members within Reformed Druidism will generally support them without committing other Druids to accepting the RDNA as a religion. The above listed Druids were even cautiously supportive, of Smiley turning his Grove into a legal church; as long as the rest of the RDNA groves didn't have to become "official." Whereas Isaac could have pointed to this as a good reason to keep the Council going ( if he had he known of it by 1974), supporting the option of Third Order minister status, the whole thing was done without officially involving the Council. 143 Shelton felt that this was appropriate, since the draft board had only asked the Carleton Arch-Druid to verify that Smiley was "in good standing" and that he led a grove in West LaFayette, "both of which clearly fall within the Arch-Druid's competence."144 The issue of incorporation was dropped until Isaac brought it up in 1974, and eventually his Pentalpha/Druid Chronicler group briefly incorporated in the late 70s.

The "Codex of Form" Affair

Partly due to a brief break in continuity during the winter of 67-68 and the chaos of passing time, much tradition had been lost and Shelton was the first ArchDruid of Carleton not to have personally known a Founder. Shelton, with a prodigious natural talent for legalese, attempted to resolve and clarify the motley assortment of customs, laws and traditions that were handed to him by Savitzky in the spring of 1969. Most of his codified statements have clear precedents from the original Blue Book of the Carleton Archives and the Records of the Council of Dalon Ap Landu. Shelton was determined "to settle one way or the other what I perceived as contradictions in the existing Record of the Council, I presented it [the Codex] to the Council for discussion only, and I later withdrew it. It was never put to a vote."145 The Record of the Council, at that time, was defined as ALL of the past correspondence letters currently on file (kind of like a Talmud).

There was a generally negative response in the discussion concerning the collection of customs in the Codex, although they did have precedents. The written replies acknowledged that the Codex showed the standard way how things had once operated, but the Council made it clear that they did not wish to give official or unofficial sanction to its very own customs as being the only "correct" way to perform Druidism, as that would have closed down other potential avenues of exploration and growth for its members. Some things are better left unofficial.

What drew heavy fire were Shelton's two innovations (1) a Secretary to the Council to serve as an anchor due to the rapid turnover of the Chairmanship at Carleton and (2) explicit requirements to keep the Chair informed about new addresses, new Groves, new Priests and such. Reformed Druid priests bridled at being told that they were required to send in reports (although, in letter, the Records of the Council are pretty explicit on this fact). This showed that a strong objection to sturdier organization beyond the Grove level existed as early as 1969. In many ways, the previous "laws" of the council were being considered as "suggestions," not as inviolable rules. The Codex affair would later inspire another young reformer, Isaac, to codify Druid practices with similar results. The Codex affair foreshadowed the more well-known Isaac Affair.

" It is no surprise that the Council that shot his stuff down in 1969 (and attributed nefarious intent to its author then) should get so hot under the collar again in 1974 (and likewise suspect the new author's motives)."146

In many ways, the Codex Affair showed the extent to which the RDNA was willing to go and how far they definitely were not willing to go. The "Codex Affair" also alerted past Carleton RDNA Druids (especially the Sheltons) that the Carleton grove was going to require some occasional advice and supervision to keep it on the right path. A sort of protective attitude can be seen to have developed by the Council toward the Carleton Grove. In fact, even to some of the other groves, Carleton would become sort of a mystical shrine.147

Women's Equality Precedent of 1971

Despite intensive earlier legislative attempts, the RDNA could still "technically" have been viewed as a sexist institution in 1970 -as defined by its laws and printed customs. Most noteworthy amongst the evidence, there were 4 unpopular verses in the Druid Chronicles (Reformed)that had implied since 1964 that women were unequal to men in the priesthood:

13. But no priestess shall be admitted into the councils of priesthood, but rather she shall be given unto one of them as a gift of service to beauty.

14. For she who is called to be a priest shall be sealed up unto one Order only, and unto her shall be given the service of it for all time;

15. And she shall be called a priest not of the Order, but rather a priest unto the Order.

16. For so it is written; thus it was, thus it is, and thus it is to be. (Customs, Chapter 8:12-16, italics mine)

These statements in DC(R) were not carved in stone, but they did have the power of tradition and Fisher behind them. Up until the Fall of 1970, one of Carleton College's In Loco Parentis rules did not allow women to be out of their rooms after 10 pm. The penalties were stiff and permitted exceptions were rare. Since the Third Order requires an all night vigil of at least 7 hours (usually sunset to sunrise), women were effectively excluded from entering the Third Order. Whether or not this barrier to the Third Order was planned by Fisher is unascertainable. To get AROUND this tradition, and to allow women a chance to enter the 3rd Order and the Higher Orders, Frangquist and Nelson proposed that women could be given "unto the Third Order" without having to vigil. Women were now admitted to the Third Order, but with a stigma of being "unto the Order" instead of being "of the Order," like the men. However, in its own way, it was the first step towards greater equality, because it at least meant that women could get into the upper Orders. There was also the restriction of entry by women to only one Higher Order, with no such restriction on the men.

Frangquist, from the beginning, wished to amend this tradition still further and managed to pass the following rules through the Council of Dalon Ap Landu regarding women:

27 January, 1965 (voted) Priestesses

(a) To delegate to the priests the right to individually consecrate priestesses to any order which they (the priests) may hold.

(b) To allow priestesses to hold the office of Arch-Druid, provided that they have first vigiled and been granted the right to perform the ceremony by the Council of Dalon Ap Landu.

This furthered cemented the entrance privilege of the women "unto the Third Order," an Archdruidcy, a Higher Order, or to hold a service. The women could now hold the Arch-Druidcy if they vigiled, but what if they did not want to risk breaking the curfew? Besides, there still was the problem that, even if the women vigiled and became Arch-Druid that she couldn't ordain other Third Order people (much less people to the Higher Orders, still mostly a Male preserve), and she couldn't be Arch-Druid without permission of the Council. Men didn't need Councilor permission to hold services or to be an Arch-Druid. Frangquist was not yet satisfied and a further vote was taken and passed:

29 March, 1966 (voted by mail) Priestesses

(a) To grant automatically to all priestesses who have conducted a vigil the right to perform the ceremonies of Reformed Druidism.

(b) To allow a priestess, while holding the office of Arch-Druid, to consecrate priests of the Third Order and priestesses unto the Order which she herself holds.

Part (a) again gave women, who actually vigiled, the unabashed right to hold any ceremonies (which included 1st, 2nd Ordinations), ordain people to the upper Orders that she holds, and to hold Orders of Worship services. Part (b) makes it clear that the female Arch-Druid need not require special permission of the Council to ordain 3rd Order Druids. Although not really important, there was also the restriction on the number of Higher Orders as said in the DC(R). Despite the vigil, many women were still traditionally called "unto the Order," according to custom of the DC(R), and therefore the earlier rules which talk about "priests of the Order" might be interpreted as not including them.

So matters stood until 1969, by which time there had already been 5 female priestess admitted "unto the Third Order," and one woman to the Archdruidcy of Carleton. The Priestesses and most of the Priests resented the traditional wording "of unto the order," rather than "to the order," but the tradition was still upheld by a few old fogies. After reading the 1969 Codex of From, Larson suggested a new referendum on the priestess issue, especially to deal with the four verses from Customs. This new call for reform struck a positive chord with many members and Larson (now Arch-Druid of the Berkeley Grove) asked Shelton to draft a new proposal on priestesses.

The completion of the vote took most of the rest of Shelton's Archdruidcy (spring 69-spring 71). Generally, support was expressed by most of the members. While voting by mail was expected to take time, the real delay was caused by the reservations of a few of the older male Druids and by Shelton's insistence that only the male priests should vote; so that no possible question of the legality of the vote could ever be raised later on. The following was submitted for a vote to the council:

1 May, 1971 (Voted by Mail)

(a) To subordinate all previous resolutions of the Council concerning priestesses to this one.

(b) To allow a priestess who has conducted a vigil and who has been consecrated to the Third Order all prerogatives of the order, including the right to hold the office of Arch-Druid and so to consecrate priests and priestesses to the Third Order. In token of this she is known as a priestess of the Third Order.

(c) To allow a priestess of the Third Order who has been confirmed by the Patriarch of the given order all prerogatives of that order. Again, she is known as a priestess of the given order.

(d) To abolish any restriction—other than those applying equally to priests—on the number of high orders to which a priestess of the Third Order may be consecrated.

Eventually in 1971, the votes were tabulated. "The four clauses that carried were finally passed by consensus, and we felt that this was a major step forward in the reform."148 By this time, the curfew on women at Carleton had been rescinded, so this no longer posed a problem on women vigiling at Carleton. Part (a) ensured that reference to previous resolutions would not be raised in the future. Part (b) reiterated most of the previous resolution's positive points and changed the phraseology of "unto the Third Order" into "of the Third Order." Part (c) ensured the equal rights of a woman in a Higher Order. Finally, Part (d) removed any limitations on entry into multiple Higher Orders. These four amendments by the Council essentially negated the 4 verses of the DC(R), but it wasn't until the 1975 publication of the Druid Chronicles (Evolved) [known as DC(E)] that those verses were first excised (which incidentally upset many pro-priestess voters).

As Deborah Gavrin Frangquist related, one of the appealing things about the early RDNA was that its leadership was [somewhat] open to women, unlike other protest movements at Carleton. Besides that, the RDNA was attractive to women who liked to see Divinity represented in a female form. While that idea seems relatively old hat to us now, seeing God as a Goddess was an exciting, revolutionary idea back then.149 It is therefore relatively puzzling, in afterthought, that there is such a paucity of records left to us on the activities of early priestesses in the RDNA. Perhaps this is due to history's favoring those leaving written records of their conquests. However, priestesses show up and demonstrate the equal verve and vim of their views in the written records in the mid-70s during the Isaac debates. In the future, more oral interviews will have to be done to supplement the historical record of role of women and female priests in the

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